image 19926166

Verbal Aggresson

Direct Verbal Aggression includes threatening others, yelling, insulting, name-calling, teasing, purposefully disturbing others (Crick, & Gropeter, 1996; Moretti, Holland, & McKay, 2001).

Girls often use verbal attacks to hurt one another. Using threats such as, " If you speak to her, you won't be my friend anymore," or you can't come to my birthday party." Name-calling is also a popular form of verbal aggression used among girls.

Insulting names like calling another girl, "ratchet," " slut," "ho," "fat," "stupid," "loser," "ugly," "trash," "jiffy," are just a few examples. Girls also use verbal aggression by commenting on another girls appearance; making fun of her clothes, shoes, hair, lips, teeth, height, race or complexion; all of which a target has no power to change.

Indirect Aggression

covert (hidden) form of aggression which includes: shunning or excluding someone from a group, becoming friends with others as a form of retaliation or revenge, ignoring another person, gossiping, telling negative tales or spreading false stories, revealing another person's secrets and the like (Artz & Nicholson, 1991, p.8).

Cyberbullying; the willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009) has become the most popular form of Indirect aggression commonly used by girls in recent years.

Using social media such as Facebook, Twitter, & Tumblr as a venue to express anger indirectly are frequently used by girls to avoid direct confrontation and the threat of being caught or punished.

Relational Aggression

Behaviors that harm others through damage. (or threat of damage) to relationships or feelings of acceptance, friendship, or group inclusion" (Crick et al., 1999, p.77) The relationships revolve around the following participants:

  • Aggressor or Bully
  • Bystanders or Girls in the Middle (G.I.M)
  • Target/Victim

Middle school and high school are the critical years when girls seeking acceptance by peers becomes top priority. Relational aggression peaks in middle school and can include both direct verbal aggression as well as indirect aggression.

Using direct verbal threats such as, "You can't come to my party unless you let me borrow that dress," or getting revenge by completely ignoring another girl and giving her "the silent treatment" as well as posting nasty messages on Facebook or Twitter. The driving force behind relational aggression is to damage a valued relationship. Girls who use relational aggression especially understand how to manipulate the priority placed on friendships in order to inflict the greatest damage.